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Start with these:
The Millionaire Next Door, Stanley and Danko. Should be required reading for all physicians.
The Boglehead's Guide to Investing, Lindauer, Larimore, LaBoeuf. The single best book I have read on personal finance and investing.
The White Coat Investor, Dahle. An excellent overview, especially for residents and new attendings.
The Intelligent Investor, Graham A deep dive into value investing.
Heads I Win, Tails I Win, Jakab . Why you shouldn't listen to the noise coming out of Wall Street.
A Random Walk Down Wall Street, Malkiel. More about Wall St, a classic.