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Start with these: 

The Millionaire Next Door, Stanley and Danko.  Should be required reading for all physicians.

The Boglehead's Guide to Investing, Lindauer, Larimore, LaBoeuf.  The single best book I have read on personal finance and investing.

The White Coat Investor, Dahle.  An excellent overview, especially for residents and new attendings.

The Psychology of Money (article)  Housel. One of the best explanations of our behavior around money and investing.

Further education:


The Intelligent Investor, Graham  A deep dive into value investing.

Heads I Win, Tails I Win, Jakab . Why you shouldn't listen to the noise coming out of Wall Street.

A Random Walk Down Wall Street, Malkiel.  More about Wall St, a classic.